Proverbs is a compendium of instructions, advice and exhortations on how to live a godly life on Earth. By our godly fear and obedience, we will discover knowledge and wisdom.
Also known as “The Preacher”, this book recognizes the frailties of life and acknowledges the sovereignty of God in the world. We attempt to find meaning in life, but there is no other source than our trust in God.
Song of Songs, attributed to Solomon, is the greatest ever love song. It is regarded as highly sacred, encapsulating the correct Biblical view that physical and spiritual are one. Marriage and physical union originates from God, as is His love for His bride, the Church.
Isaiah clearly reveals the Gospel in the Old Testament, going so far as to prophesy the life of Jesus Christ Himself. Salvation lies in God and God alone; the message of Isaiah shows that obeying the law is our desire to please God who saved us. It is the result of our salvation and not the other way round.
Jeremiah records God’s repetitive warnings and prophecies given to the prophet over 40 years. His prophecies allow us to appreciate the work of God and the foresight of a new covenant that God will bring to restore His people through the work of Jesus Christ.
Lamentations goes through the confusion and sorrow of a man who has seen the consequences of sin on the world. It drives home the importance of repenting for our sins and asking God for forgiveness. In any hopeless situation, we should find hope in the Lord.
Ezekiel touches on God’s judgement on Israel and His promise of eventual restoration. We learn about the incomprehensible glory of God, Man’s sin and idolatry, and that He is a holy God who judges sin.
Daniel is one of the more prolific prophets of the Old Testament. From surviving the furnace with his 3 friends to facing the lions in the den, Daniel’s experiences underline his steadfast faith and belief in God. We also see that good and bad kingdoms will come and go, but God’s eternal kingdom will come eventually and we will live there forever.
Hosea was the first of the minor (lesser-known) prophets, but the last prophet warning Israel to repent. However, he also focused on God’s mercy and loving-kindness.
Joel laments the just judgement of God against His rebellious people. However, he reveals the heart of the Father that desires genuine repentance, bestowing restoration and great blessings on His people.
The book of Amos reminds us that God is just and righteous. It also reminds us that He hates hypocrisy and therefore His children have no leniency when it comes to His judgement against Sin. Amos’s warnings did not just proclaim disasters and judgment, but they also point people to repentance. Christians today must remember to heed God’s warnings and respond accordingly too.
Obadiah pronounces judgment on the foreign nation of Edom. The book also teaches us the consequences of sin and the importance of placing ourselves under God’s authority, lest we invite judgment on ourselves.
Jonah is the story of a prophet who was angered by God’s mercy towards the wicked city of Nineveh when they demonstrated repentance. Jonah’s time in the fish even foreshadows Christ’s death and resurrection long before it came to pass.
Micah shows what happens as a result of sin. He provides one of the most important prophecies about Jesus Christ’s birth and His reign in the future.
Nahum prophesies God’s final judgment and anger against Assyria, 150 years after Jonah preached against Nineveh, which initially brought about their initial repentance. The main gist of this book is that God’s justice is always correct at the end of the day.
God tells Habakkuk that He will use the evil Babylonians to punish Israel. The prophet protests and appeals to God’s righteous and holy nature ran counter to Israel’s punishment. This reminds us that God’s plans surpass human understanding, known only to Him alone.
We learn of God’s love for His people. Although God brings judgement because of the immeasurable amount of sin, He also shows His faithfulness by bringing restoration to His children who humble themselves and seeks His divine mercy.
Haggai shows us that God expects His people to put him first. He is concerned for the holiness of their lives. At the same time, God promises to exalt Zerubbabel – the last survivor of David’s royal line – as His chosen one, through whom would be fulfilled the kingdom promise of his descendant, Jesus Christ.
Zechariah offers a prophecy for the Jews returning from exile, on their future to come. Even though they will still be judged for their sins, they will also be restored and cleansed through the work of the Messiah.
As the final book of the Old Testament, Malachi shows us how the Israelites were still doubtful that God loved them. It also foreshadows God’s accomplished work through Jesus. We learn that God’s judgments are sure, even if His timing is different from ours and surpasses our understanding.